- Brief lines
Welcome to this issue of 2PDM, an e-zine distributed every two weeks on a free subscription basis. The following article, 'Data quality in the CPC/PLM environment', is the sixth of a series of articles by Mike Bryan about CAD Data Exchange. The first article, 'A Logical Approach to CAD Data Exchange' appeared in the November 6, 2000 issue. The second, 'Determine Minimum Dataset' appeared in the December 4, 2000 issue, the third, 'Choose the Exchange Format', in the January 15, 2001 issue, the fourth, 'The Tony Blair Imperative' in the February 12, 2001 issue, and the fifth, 'Tolerance' in the April 9, 2001 issue.
* Data quality in the CPC/PLM environment *
In the good old bad old days before any of us knew what CPC/PLM stood for and the phrase 'Supply Chain Management' hadn't been dreamt up, the major CAD/CAM/CAE vendors were promoting their individual offerings as being all that an Enterprise required for product conception, design, analysis, manufacture and measurement. Using a single vendor's software end-to-end throughout an Enterprise certainly solved data interchange problems (thus taking the bread out of my mouth) but it also provided a very convenient cover for potential digital nasties.
I considered this end-to-end approach was the digital data equivalent of human incest or cows eating dead cows - which we all know led to mad cow disease. What they proposed, in fact, was members of the same software family dutifully inseminating themselves, metaphorically of course, with data from their brothers (or sisters) from product inception to conception and beyond. Product descriptions generated by some members of the family would be fed directly to other members for all manner of analyses and then on again to blue collar members for manufacture. Then the finished product would be checked and measured by yet another family member so there was not only incest but also nepotism.
I always felt that there was something essentially very wrong with this approach - unless, of course, you could be absolutely and positively certain that there was nothing nasty in the woodwork. But other than the system developers, what do any of us really know about the internal workings of these systems? Certainly from a product data quality point of view there are many unanswered questions. Didn't we learn from an early age that we should not put all our eggs into one basket? Although using a mix of systems can give rise to data interchange problems, such problems can be indicative of potential data quality problems that would otherwise remain hidden.
In days gone by, when I discussed this topic of geometric data quality with supporters of the 'one system across the Enterprise' approach they argued that it wasn't really a problem. They claimed that if you can faithfully reproduce what you have designed, what does it matter that there might be a few microscopic 'warts' on the model. Whereas I felt that if these systems are able to give us perfection with no real overhead then we should expect it and indeed demand it. Also, of course, we don't really want 'warts' on precise surfaces such as aerofoils which need to be as close as possible to their theoretical shape.
What is required is the use of sound, robust algorithms with no sacrifice of accuracy for speed. I claimed that CAD/CAM/CAE system developers should provide detailed information on the geometric construction accuracy of their products in the same way that machine-tool manufacturers provide details of the machine's mechanical and positional accuracy. Original product geometry should always be as accurate as possible since accuracy can be sacrificed when not required but the reverse is not possible.
Now that we have entered the age of CPC/PLM, with its implicit requirement for near-seamless data interchange, it never fails to amaze me that in all the articles I read in professional periodicals, I can find precious little on the quality of product definition. We rightly concern ourselves with the management, networking, sharing and control of product data - all these good things with their impact on collaborative design and manufacture - but we don't seem to be too concerned about its implicit quality. Living in this brave new world of CPC/PLM, in which collaborative product development is the norm, the arguments for high quality product geometry are even more relevant. If you outsource from a high-cost environment in Detroit, say, using a high-cost Enterprise-wide CAD/CAM/CAE system to several low-cost providers in Shanghai, or Eastern Europe, using dissimilar systems, the internal 'warts' that the high-cost Enterprise-wide system is not aware of will become immediately obvious. Fixing them will lengthen time-to-market and increase costs. This is not what CAD was meant to do.
What can be done to determine the quality of CAD/CAM/CAE product geometry? I mentioned in a previous article that it is possible to check geometric definition quality through the use of established datasets that define such entities as circles, planes, cylinders, cones, etc. These datasets are input into the particular system and the relevant geometric entity fitted. In the simple case of a circle, the radius of the circle fitted by the system (e.g. 1.00015) is compared to the true radius (1.00000) and the resulting error is one measure of the system's accuracy. It is analogous to checking the positional accuracy of a co-ordinate measuring machine. All companies do that don't they - and don't they all mention it in their ISO 9000 documentation?
Mike Bryan can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org
For the following subjects, follow the links through to Amazon.com
Follow the link for books in the Product Development Library
To order any of the following items, follow the link through to Amazon.com
CAD case studies, CAD user stories
EDM/PDM Reference Section
Recent additions and modifications to 'Service Providers in the EDM/PDM World' include Domain Systems, Inc.
Books and software in German
* Need to go to an EDM/PDM event? * To find out which events are coming up, visit our list of Conferences and Seminars in the EDM/PDM world.
Eigner announced that it has received a $17 million investment from Ampersand Ventures. The funds will be used to continue the company's product development and customer support initiatives, and to expand the company's sales, marketing and business development programs as it begins an aggressive strategy to enter new world markets.
* Financial *
Ariba, Inc. announced results for the fourth quarter and fiscal year ended September 30, 2001. Revenues for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2001 were at $62.6 million. Net loss for the quarter excluding certain non - cash and special charges was $27.7 million. Details
Dassault Systemes reported financial results for the third quarter and nine months ended September 30, 2001. Total revenue increased 15% to Euro 178.8 million in the third quarter of 2001, up from Euro 155.4 million in the 2000 third quarter. 7,940 CATIA and 6,888 SolidWorks seats were licensed in the third quarter of 2001. PDM business, with ENOVIA and SmarTeam, increased 32%.
Documentum announced financial results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2001. The Company reported total revenue for the third quarter of 2001 of $44.8 million, a 13 percent decrease over revenue of $51.7 million for the same period last year and a 2 percent decrease over the second quarter of fiscal 2001. Details
Hummingbird Ltd. reported its consolidated results for the fourth quarter and year ended September 30, 2001. Sales for the quarter ended September 30, 2001 were $48.9 million, compared to $65.5 million in the quarter ended September 30, 2000. Details
Innoveda, Inc. reported financial results for the third quarter ended September 29, 2001. Revenue for the quarter was $20.0 million. For the same period last year, Innoveda reported revenue of $23.1 million. Details
Intergraph Corporation reported operating results for its third quarter ended September 30, 2001. For the quarter, the Company reported an operating income of $2.2 million and net income of $1.2 million on revenues of $127.1 million. Details
Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. reported revenue for the third quarter ended September 30, 2001 of $14.4 million, a 25% increase over $11.6 million for the corresponding period in 2000. Details
Mentor Graphics Corporation reported third quarter 2001 revenues of $131 million. Details
Moldflow Corporation reported results for its first fiscal quarter ended September 29, 2001. Revenue of $8.2 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2002 was down 7% from the corresponding quarter of fiscal 2001. Details
Open Text Corporation announced financial results for its first quarter September 30, 2001. Total revenue for the quarter was $35.3 million up 18% over Q1 fiscal 2001. Details
Selectica announced results for the second quarter of the fiscal year ending March 31, 2002. The company reported pro-forma revenues of $9.8 million, representing a decrease of approximately 42% from revenues reported in the same quarter a year ago. Details
Ventro Corporation announced results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2001. The third quarter marked the completion of the integration of Ventro's operations with those of NexPrise, Inc. Ventro acquired NexPrise on August 8. Since the NexPrise acquisition, Ventro has signed customer contracts with an expected value of more than $1 million. Details
* People *
Eigner unveiled its new senior management team as part of an overall company global introduction. Frank Azzolino will serve as Eigner's president and chief executive officer.
Intergraph Corporation announced the appointment of Gerhard Sallinger as president of the company's Process & Building Solutions division. He reports to James F. Taylor, chairman and CEO, Intergraph Corporation. Details
i2 Technologies, Inc. announced that Kenneth Lay has resigned from the i2 Board of Directors.
Maxim I/T announced that Lloyd R. Fields has joined the company as President and Chief Executive Officer.
Staffware announced that Michael Landau, its Corporate Development Director, has resigned with immediate effect from the Board of Staffware plc and also as Company Secretary. Details
* Implementation *
Cadence Design Systems, Inc. announced that China's largest TV manufacturer, Sichuan Changhong Electric Co. Ltd., has selected Cadence PCB tools to design its next-generation, high-end consumer electronics product line. Details
Cadence Design Systems, Inc. announced that its top-down analog/mixed-signal(AMS) methodology services has delivered a mixed-signal flow for the LSI Division of Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. This allowed the division to produce a fully functional mixed-signal IC design in the first pass. Details
Commerce One, Inc., announced that BayanTrade, a Philippines business-to-business e-marketplace with more than 190 trading partners, is using Commerce One's solutions. Details
Dassault Systemes announced that Constructions Mécaniques de Normandies' new line of luxury yachts is being built using Product Lifecycle Management Shipbuilding Solutions. Details
Dassault Systemes announced that Sony Corporation Home Network Company, Home Visual Company has selected Dassault Systemes' CATIA Version 5 (V5) solution for the design of its flat-screen WEGA television monitors. Details
Digital Paper Corporation announced that ASCO Power Technologies, a leader in emergency and standby power transfer solutions, has gone live with Digital Paper's docQuest solution. ASCO is using docQuest to automate supplier collaboration and the distribution of engineering change notifications (ECNs) of post-design revisions to automatic power switch technologies. Details
Eigner announced that Siemens Audiologische Technik GmbH, a leader in manufacturing and sales of hearing instruments, has deployed a product lifecycle management solution based on Eigner technology.
FileNET Corporation announced general availability of Panagon eProcess Services 4.2. This new version of FileNET's XML-based business process management application offers a range of new functionality including process submaps, out-of-the-box timing and event synchronization, support for Internet attachments and automatic launching of document lifecycle processes within Panagon Content Services.
Hummingbird Ltd. announced that Italy-based Piaggio, a leading manufacturer of two-wheeled motor vehicles including the Vespa, has purchased Hummingbird EIP and DOCSFusion to build an innovative and dynamic corporate Portal to be called PiaggioNet. Details
Hummingbird Ltd. announced that Raytheon Company has purchased CyberDOCS and PowerDOCS Imaging from Hummingbird to develop an Imaging and Document Management System for the Maine Department of Transportation (MDOT). Details
IHS Enterprise Solutions, an IHS Group company, announced that it is installing a Web portal for the United States Air Force (USAF) for worldwide delivery of USAF Tech Orders and other mission-critical, hyperlinked data in November. Tech Orders are detailed maintenance and repair procedures for Air Force aircraft. With this contract, millions of pages of text, illustrations and data tables will be converted into electronic formats for secure access on the DoD.mil network. Details
Mentor Graphics Corporation announced that Hitachi, Ltd. has adopted the Mentor Graphics resolution enhancement technology, Calibre PSMgate software tool. Details
Modultek announced that Vaisala, a high-tech company making equipment for upper air observations and various other environmental measurement tasks, has taken Modultek's Aton system for production use as its product management solution in Finland and has started a project to expand Aton to its global product management solution.
Moldflow Corporation announced multiple orders. High Tech Plastics AG, a German moldmaker, Seeber, an Italian automotive parts manufacturer, Schneider Electric, a leading French manufacturer of electrical distribution and power control equipment, Motorola, a leading American provider of integrated communications and electronic solutions and Mareco Tooling, a custom molder located in the Netherlands have each made investments in the Moldflow Plastics Insight suite of products. Also announced is an investment in Moldflow's Manufacturing Solutions products by Business Area Carton Ambient. Details
PTC announced it has received a new order for Windchill software and services from Primax Electronics Ltd, a manufacturer of information products, electronics and consumer products. Details
PTC announced that Burton Snowboards, a snowboard manufacturer, is speeding development of new board designs with Pro/ENGINEER and Pro/INTRALINK. Details
Pilgrim Software announced that it has been selected to implement its Supplier Focus, Internal Focus, and WEBCAR software applications at global valve manufacturer ASCO. Details
SGI announced that The BP Center for Visualization, offering advanced visualization capabilities for a variety of business and research sectors, has chosen SGI technologies to power its state-of-the-art facilities. The center, at the University of Colorado at Boulder and made possible through a $10.6 million gift from BP last fall, features an Immersive Visualization Environment (IVE), consisting of a 12x12x10-foot screened space. Details
SolidWorks announced that Iowa State University engineering students are learning 3D CAD skills with SolidWorks software. Iowa State recently purchased 250 licenses of SolidWorks for its mechanical engineering, agricultural, aerospace, and industrial and manufacturing systems engineering departments. Details
Structural Research & Analysis Corp. announced that the University of Texas has incorporated 40 seats of COSMOS/Works as part of several start-up projects focusing on PROject Centered Engineering EDucation (PROCEED) activities in the school's Mechanical Engineering department. Details
Ventro Corporation announced that Trelleborg Automotive has agreed to a multi-year contract for software and services. Trelleborg currently uses the Ventro collaborative commerce solution (formerly known as NexPrise ipTeam) for quote management within its Americas group. Details
Verity, Inc. announced that the United States Air Force will deploy a suite of Verity's K2-based portal infrastructure software for the advanced search and organization of millions of pages of content, including confidential information, on its new My.AirForce portal. Details
Workgroup Technology Corporation (WTC) announced that the Connection Systems Division of Teradyne, Inc., a manufacturer of high-speed/high-density interconnects, multi-gigabit custom backplanes, and high-performance systems integration and test, has upgraded its WTC collaborative product suite to WTC ProductCenter in support of nearly 1,000 users worldwide. Details
* Developments *
Agile Software launched five new offerings that complement the company's existing solutions to deliver on Agile's new Product Chain Management strategy. Details
AIM systems announced the release of COMPASS 2000 version 2.1.
ANSYS, Inc. announced that the new ANSYS 6.0 simulation software suite is compatible with the Linux Red Hat 7.1 Operating System that features the Intel Processor Family (IPF). Details
Bentley Systems announced the commercial availability of MicroStation V8, the first release of Bentley's V8 Generation, a new era of integrated engineering content creation, management and publishing. Details
CADCAM-E announced it is now offering Pro/ENGINEER to Mastercam translations over the web, eliminating the need for subcontractors to purchase a Pro/ENGINEER license or conversion software. Details
Centric Software, Inc. introduced the next generation of its solution, Centric Innovation 3.0.
CoCreate Software Inc. announced a new release of its 2D mechanical design and drafting software, ME10 2002 Dynamic Drafting, a key component of CoCreate's OneSpace Solution Suite. Details
Cypress Corporation unveiled its Statistics Module, an enterprise-wide solution that enables organizations to track and monitor all events related to content delivery and access in today's 'anywhere, anytime' output environment.
Eurostep Commercial Solutions announced release 2 of its web-based engineering collaboration portal Share-A-space. The new release is targeted at advanced workflow management in extended enterprise engineering projects and also introduces other new features.
FileNET Corporation announced general availability of Panagon Capture Professional 3.1 for Image Services, Capture Desktop 3.1 for Content Services, and Capture Remote Entry Server. Details
IDEAL.com announced IntraNETIX-FM, emergency preparedness software that assists in the challenge of fast, accurate retrieval of large format scanned documents and electronic (CAD) files. Details
i2 Technologies, Inc. announced the general availability of i2 Five.Two, a business platform which includes new products and enhancements to i2's family of solutions and services.
Maxim I/T announced the Virtual Light Table.
Mentor Graphics Corporation introduced FPGA Advantage 5.2, a new version of its HDL design flow that provides designers with an integrated environment for design creation, management, simulation and synthesis of FPGAs. Details
Modultek released a new version of its Aton product information management software. Aton 2.2 features many new functions and tools that make the software more user-friendly and data management more efficient.
Modultek announced that it has added a new tool to its product information management system Aton. The Aton Engineering Tool Interface (ETI) enables Aton to be integrated easily into practically all information production tools.
Moldflow Corporation announced the availability of Moldflow Plastics Xpert (MPX ) 3.1 and Shotscope 2.4 software, which are now integrated on one hardware platform. Details
MSC.Software Corp. announced the availability of MSC.visualCollaboration, a real-time application designed to help engineers collaborate on design and simulation projects, receive training and utilize support services. MSC.Software acquired the technology underlying the MSC.visualCollaboration product as part of the acquisition of Advanced Enterprise Solutions, Inc. in July of 2001. The first MSC.visualCollaboration application is currently being deployed by a major Asian automotive manufacturer. Details
Océ announced a new web-based system supporting online submission of meter readings for its printer and copier service customers. Details
Engineering Data Management Newsletter
Download a free review copy of the June 2001 issue of the Engineering Data Management Newsletter (PDF, 339kB).
* Relationships *
Ariba, Inc. and CascadeWorks announced an alliance. The result is Ariba Workforce, an enterprise software solution that addresses the growing demand among Global 2000 companies for spend management solutions that reduce the cost of procuring temporary workers, contractors and consultants. Details
Cimmetry Systems and e4eNet, Inc., a provider of real-time web-based engineering collaboration solutions, announced that e4eNet has licensed Cimmetry's Java-based 3D AutoVue visualization technology for use in its Mechanical Design Manager application.
Dassault Systemes announced that Trace Parts has joined the Software Community Program as a Partner. Details
Documentum announced its support of the Sun ONE software product architecture with the intention to certify Documentum eContent Services within the Sun ONE architecture. Details
Documentum, Inc. announced that it will partner with Hitachi Software Engineering Co., Ltd. to jointly distribute content management solutions for the public sector market in Japan. Details
FileNET Corp. and Arbortext, a global provider of XML-based software that enables the creation, editing and publishing of information from a single source of content to multiple types of media, announced a partnership to integrate FileNET's Panagon family of Enterprise Content Management (ECM) products with Arbortext's Epic software. Details
FileNET Corporation announced a new Development ISV partner program focusing on providing technologies that complement its Panagon Enterprise Content Management platform. Details
Hewlett-Packard Company and i2 Technologies, Inc. announced an agreement to provide global HP and i2 customers and trading partners with solutions for private marketplaces and i2 Supplier Relationship Management (SRM). Details
Hummingbird Ltd. announced a strategic partnership with Alchemedia, a leading provider of Persistent Information Protection software. The integration of Alchemedia's Mirage Enterprise 3.0 technology with Hummingbird EIP and DOCSFusion will make distribution of proprietary and sensitive information more secure than ever. Details
Ingenuus Corporation announced that an international alliance formed by ABB Power T& D Company, Inc., a global technology company, and Catalyst Power Partners, LLC, Santa Barbara, California, has selected the Ingenuus Manufacturing Change Manager (MCM) software to help it establish a new performance standard for distributed energy solutions. Details
Innoveda, Inc. unveiled a comprehensive partner program with more than 60 high-tech companies already participating. Details
Mentor Graphics Corporation and Altera Corporation announced that mutual customers now have access to a selection of Inventra intellectual property cores optimized for use with Altera's Excalibur ARM-based embedded processor solutions. Details
Mentor Graphics Corporation and Circuit Semantics announced an integrated Design-for-Test (DFT) solution that enables design and test engineers to create high coverage test vectors for custom transistor-level designs. As part of this solution, Circuit Semantics is introducing DynaTest, a new addition to its DynaModel product. Details
Mentor Graphics Corporation and Teradyne announced a partnership aimed at speeding time-to-market, reducing test costs and improving yields of semiconductors tested with Design-for-Test (DFT) techniques. Details
Mentor Graphics Corporation announced that it has licensed the Inventra USB Function Controller to Parthus Technologies for use in the company's InfoStream mobile communications platform. Details
Mentor Graphics Corporation announced the addition of Altera Corporation as the seventh member of its Embedded Technology Adoption Program. Details
Mentor Graphics Corporation announced it has joined the Open System C Initiative (OSCI) as a corporate member and Michael A. Bohm, chief technologist of the HDL design division, has been appointed to the OSCI board of directors. Details
PTC and Siemens Business Services announced that the two companies have entered into an agreement to jointly deliver Collaborative Product Commerce (CPC) solutions as part of SBS' Collaborative Lifecycle Management practice. SBS has signed a global Enterprise Consulting Partnership Agreement with PTC, based on the PTC Windchill software solutions suite. Details
PTC announced that more than 40 new companies have joined its worldwide MCAD partner program. The program is part of PTC's strategy to provide superior customer service and deployment support for its MCAD solutions including Pro/ENGINEER. Details
Sopheon announced strategic alliances with 12 additional partners in the company's recently introduced Valued Industry Alliance (Via) Program.
* Other *
Agile Software announced that Agile and Dell have won Technology Partnership Corporate Awards of Excellence from APICS for the implementation of Agile solutions at Dell.
Alias|Wavefront announced a special offer entitling anyone taking a StudioTools CAID (computer-aided industrial design) software course by the end of the year to receive a 30 percent discount off a second course. The offer applies to all four-day StudioTools certified courses available in North America. Details
Altris Software Inc. announced that eB CM, its configuration management product, has received Configuration Management II (CMII) certification. Details
ANSYS, Inc. announced that its Board of Directors voted to amend its existing common stock repurchase program to permit the Company to acquire up to an additional 1,000,000 shares, which is approximately 7% of the Company's outstanding common stock. Details
Ashlar-Vellum Inc. announced a free beta test-drive of Neon, the company's 3D publishing tool. Details
Digital Paper Corporation announced it has been named to the Deloitte & Touche Technology Fast 50 Program for Virginia, a ranking of the 50 fastest growing technology companies in the area. Rankings are based on the percentage of growth in revenues from 1996-2000 (five-year period). Details
Engineous Software announced that a study by Daratech shows Engineous Software as the clear market leader in Process Integration and Design Optimization, accounting for over half the industry's total. Details
Green Pasture Software announced that Plant Engineering has selected Green Pasture Software's G5 as a finalist in the magazine's 2001 Product of the Year competition. Details
Open Text Corporation announced that it is renewing its normal course issuer bid to repurchase, from time to time over the next 12 months, if considered advisable, up to an aggregate of 986,366 common shares, being approximately 5% of its common shares, on the Toronto Stock Exchange and Nasdaq National Market. Details
SolidWorks Corp. announced that its 3D CAD software is one of the first CAD solutions to support Microsoft Office XP, the newest version of Office software from Microsoft Corporation. Details
Sun Microsystems, Inc. rolled out its Sun ONE (Sun Open Net Environment) software platform for services on demand as the company and its partners detailed new products, services, reference architectures and tools. Sun ONE is the vision, architecture, platform and expertise for developing and deploying services on demand. Details
Verity, Inc. announced it will reduce its workforce by 65 employees, or approximately 13 percent of its work force, during its fiscal quarter ending November 30, 2001. This reduction, along with other actions being taken by the company, is intended to position the company to return to profitability by its third fiscal quarter, which ends February 28, 2002. Details
Verity, Inc. announced that it has won the Best Practice Award 2001 for Technology Innovation with the State of California for its award-winning Web site, MyCalifornia (my.ca.gov). Details
To subscribe to 2PDM, fill in the subscription form or send an e-mail headed 'start 2PDM subscription' to email@example.com
Subscribers receive 2PDM free of charge.
We understand and respect your desire for privacy. The information we ask for at subscription time is the minimum necessary to effectively fulfill your subscription and communicate with you if and when necessary. We do not release the information you provide us to third parties. In case of further questions, you can reach us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Click here to access previous issues of 2PDM.
We know you have a busy schedule. To reduce delivery and reading time, 2PDM has a simple format and concise content.
Termination of subscription
To terminate subscription, please send an e-mail headed 'stop 2PDM subscription' to email@example.com
2PDM is provided free of charge to its readers. Companies that share our objectives of promoting successful implementation of EDM and PDM systems and world-class product development performance may sponsor 2PDM. There is space for a maximum of one sponsor message per page, except on this 'Brief lines' page - where there is room for several short sponsor messages.
2PDM is published approximately every two weeks.
Copyright 2001 by John Stark. All rights reserved.
Permission to reproduce text or graphics
Applications for permission to reproduce part or parts of 2PDM (text or graphics) should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org
Permission to make 2PDM available within an organization
Applications for permission to make 2PDM available within a company or other organization (e.g. by internal mail, corporate Intranet, etc.) are usually accepted. Please send a request for permission to email@example.com
Information provided in 2PDM is intended solely to provide general guidance on matters of interest for the personal use of the reader, who accepts full responsibility for its use. Information is provided 'as is', with no guarantee of completeness, accuracy, or timeliness, and without warranty of any kind, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the warranties of performance, merchantability, and fitness for a particular purpose.
Nothing in 2PDM shall to any extent substitute for the independent investigations and the sound technical and business judgement of the reader. Technology, laws and regulations are continually changing, and can only be interpreted in the light of particular factual situations. The information in 2PDM does not constitute technological, business, legal, investment or consulting advice, and should only be used in conjunction with appropriate professional advice obtained by the reader from a suitably qualified professional who understands the reader's particular factual situation.