October 22, 2001
2PDM

www.johnstark.com


Volume 4
Number 5




Page 1
- Welcome
Page 2
- Update
Page 3
- News
Page 4
- Brief lines

* Welcome *
Welcome to this issue of 2PDM, an e-zine distributed every two weeks on a free subscription basis.

* Of CPC/PLM, DASAMASA and the Slim-Line Corporation *
The Director of Strategy and Planning asked us for a definition of CPC/PLM.

We didn't answer immediately, preferring first to define DASAMASA - the acronym for Develop Anywhere Sell Anywhere Manufacture Anywhere Support Anywhere - which is the aim of leading manufacturers in these early years of the new millennium.

As an example, we mentioned the car that was developed at 2 sites in the USA, 3 in Europe and 2 in Japan; sold on a website in Germany to a Swede living in Australia; manufactured in Poland, China, Vietnam, Singapore, Mexico, Taiwan, France, Canada, the USA and Italy; and serviced in Brazil when the Swede moved there - and later in Mexico where it was resold, before finally being scrapped and recycled in California. Not just a global car - a DASAMASA car.

We explained to him how, driven by changes in the market and advances in technology, CPC/PLM has emerged in the early years of the 21st Century as the way to develop, sell and support products in the DASAMASA environment. He asked which systems are included in CPC/PLM, and we told him about the three main classes of CPC/PLM systems:
  • systems that focus on product and process definition (e.g. systems such as requirements management, CAD, DFM, CAE, NC programming, BOM systems, routing definition, plastic behavior analysis, Rapid Prototyping, Factory Simulation, parts library systems)
  • interface systems that make product and process definition data available for use later in the product life cycle (for example in sales catalogs, sales configurators, NC controllers, ERP systems and technical publishing systems)
  • support systems used in many activities (e.g. systems such as viewers, QFD, process mapping, project management, Configuration Management, EDM, PDM, visualization, collaborative workspace systems, and data exchange and translation systems)
He remarked that CPC/PLM is such an obvious way to develop and support products that he was surprised it wasn't used earlier. We replied that before DASAMASA, a CPC/PLM approach was neither needed from a business point of view nor possible from the technical viewpoint.

During the latter half of the 20th Century, each decade had its own issues, systems and solutions, but the product development and product support/service processes rarely had high priority among business managers. Their main focus was the F&A processes and the money flowing through them. Rightly so, some would say, since without positive cash flow, nobody will be paid for long - not even the managers. Their next priority was the sales process, which produces cash in the short term. Then came the Production processes as customers wouldn't actually part with money until they were sure that products existed. As for product development, why should a business manager focus on an activity that might only lead to cash flows in a year or two .. or seven?

The 50s and 60s
Following on from a World War, these were golden years for manufacturing industry. Demand exceeded production capability, social trends away from rural life produced more city-dwellers, prosperity led to new customers for a widening base of consumer goods such as cars, washing machines, wirelesses, telephones and television sets. Factories were often vertically integrated. Most industrial goods were sold in the land where they were designed and produced. Companies used mainframe computers to run salary applications. CAD, NC and MRP were in their infancy. The development of new products was left to the "techies". No need for DASAMASA or CPC/PLM.

The 70s and 80s
The Oil Shock and Nixon's scrapping of the Bretton Woods agreement led to inflation and currency fluctuations. Shipping lanes from Japan to the USA were crowded. Companies in the West were worried by the increasing presence of high-quality, low-cost Japanese cars and electronics. Manufacturers in the West eventually responded with JIT, ISO 900 and TQM - none of which had much impact on product development. Computer power increased, computer prices decreased. Minicomputers gave way to workstations and PCs. MRP evolved to MRP2. Networks became increasingly powerful. CAD/CAM systems were no longer centralized. EDM/PDM appeared. The development of new products was left to the "young techies". Product support was left to the, by now, "old techies". As techies aren't interested in customer requirements and like to work as individuals, customers received products with unwanted functionality and little support - the old techies not being informed about product development by the young techies. Still no need for DASAMASA or CPC/PLM.

The 90s
Business Process Reengineering led companies to review their processes, sometimes even their product development processes. Globalization hit. A wave of imports from low-cost countries led to the price of goods dropping. In response, production was outsourced to low-cost countries. Then development was outsourced. The trend to slim-line corporations increased. With developers in different places working closely together, Concurrent Engineering morphed into Collaborative Development. Air freight, DHL and FedEx enabled rapid transport of designs, parts and goods. A presence in other countries became necessary. The World Wide Web, e-commerce, B2B and trading exchanges appeared. MRP2 evolved to ERP. CAD functionality became a commodity. PDM brought some order to all the product data. More sales configurators appeared. Ecologists became more vocal. Companies were forced to think about recycling. Customer focus became a buzzword. Some way of enabling real service was needed. Product Lifecycle Management appeared. Everything was in place for DASAMASA and CPC/PLM.

2001
To increase shareholder value, management needs to outsource manufacturing and development to progressively lower-cost countries.
Governments and consumers are forcing manufacturers to focus on the entire product life cycle right through to recycling.
Air freight, travel, telecommunications, video conferencing and the Web make it easy to work with people anywhere.
After the events of September 11, businesses and consumers are reining in spending. With the size of many markets decreasing, businesses will need to increase market share to increase revenues.
With development, sales, manufacturing and support activities being possible in any location, traditional views of functional roles and system boundaries are losing their validity.
Fazed by the changing environment, many companies continue with old strategies and plans aimed at conditions that no longer exist.

* Business Leaders * Distribute 2PDM e-zine widely. It will help make your executives and managers more aware of product development issues.


Page 2

 Web-based View-Markup from Spicer Corporation.

Web-based View-Markup from Spicer Corporation



For the following subjects, follow the links through to Amazon.com
Top 50 Computer Books Management and Leadership



Follow the link for books in the Product Development Library




To order any of the following items, follow the link through to Amazon.com
Internet & Networking Top Selling Software Amazon.com 100 Hot CDs
Computer Add-Ons PDAs Top Selling Electronics








CAD case studies, CAD user stories



EDM/PDM Reference Section
Recent additions and modifications to 'Vendors in the EDM/PDM World' include Freeborders and think3.



Books and software in German

* Need to go to an EDM/PDM event? * To find out which events are coming up, visit our list of Conferences and Seminars in the EDM/PDM world.

Page 3
News

* Corporate *
Autodesk, Inc. announced that it has closed the transaction announced August 30, 2001 to acquire the software product line from Media 100, a leading provider of digital media products. Details

Bentley Systems, Incorporated announced the successful completion of an acquisition by merger of GEOPAK Corporation. Details

RAND Worldwide announced it has entered into a Letter of Intent to acquire 100% of the outstanding shares of Aurbis Technical Centre, Ltd. of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

* Financial *
3D Systems Corp. announced revenues for the third quarter 2001 of $31.5 million compared with $29.5 million in the prior year, an increase of 7%. Details

Cadence Design Systems, Inc. announced third quarter revenues of $360 million. Details

Commerce One, Inc. announced financial results for the quarter ended September 30, 2001. Revenues for the current quarter totaled $81 million, compared to revenues of $113 million for the quarter ended September 30, 2000. Details

Documentum announced financial results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2001. Revenue for the third quarter of 2001 was $44.8 million, a 13 percent decrease over revenue of $51.7 million for the same period last year and a 2 percent decrease over the second quarter of fiscal 2001. Details

FileNET Corporation announced financial results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2001. The Company reported revenues of $80.1 million, compared to revenues of $99.1 million for the same quarter of 2000. Details

i2 Technologies, Inc. announced its third quarter results. Total revenues of $194 million for the third quarter were down from $241 million last quarter, and from $320 million in the third quarter of 2000.

PTC reported revenue totaling $225.4 million for the fourth quarter ended September 30, 2001, compared with $235.0 million for the same period last year. For the fiscal year, revenue totaled $934.6 million, compared to $928.4 million for fiscal 2000. Total Windchill revenue in the fourth quarter was $52.6 million, compared to $51.6 million a year ago. For the year, Windchill revenue grew 22% to $213.9 million. Total MCAD revenue for the fourth quarter was $172.8 million, compared to $183.4 million a year ago. Details

SAP AG announced its financial results for the third quarter and nine months ended September 30, 2001. For the first nine months, sales increased 23% over 2000 to Euro 5.0 billion (2000: Euro 4.1 billion). Details

Sun Microsystems, Inc. reported results for the first quarter of fiscal year 2002 which ended September 30, 2001. Revenues for the first quarter were $2.861 billion, a year-over-year decrease of 43 percent. Details

Workgroup Technology Corporation (WTC) announced its financial results for the second quarter of fiscal 2002 ended September 30, 2001. For the second quarter of fiscal 2002, WTC reported revenue of $1,870,000 compared with $1,846,000 in the second quarter of fiscal 2001. Details

* People *
Ariba, Inc. announced it has appointed Robert Calderoni as president and chief executive officer, with Ariba founder Keith Krach remaining as chairman of the Board of Ariba.

Mentor Graphics Corporation announced that Hanns Windele has been promoted to Vice President for the company's European region. Details

 Autovue - from Cimmetry Systems, Inc.

Download AutoVue from Cimmetry Systems

SGI announced that Arthur L. Money has joined its board of directors. Most recently, he was the assistant secretary of defense for command, control, communications and intelligence and chief information officer of the U.S. Department of Defense from 1998 through April 2001. Details

Selectica Inc. announced that David Batt, most recently a vice president for CRM sales at Oracle, has been named executive vice president of worldwide sales. Details

* Implementation *
Agile Software announced that Fujitsu has selected Agile to enable collaboration with internal divisions and supply chain partners, as well as achieve cost reductions throughout the Fujitsu group. Details

Altris Software Inc. announced an order from a new customer, South African Rail Commuter Corporation, for the eB Configuration Management solution. Details

Alventive, Inc. announced that Microsoft Corp. has selected Alventive Collaborative Design Solutions to assist in the production of the Xbox video game system, due to launch on November 15, 2001. Details

Cadence Design Systems, Inc. announced that ECAD Technologies Ltd., Bangalore, India, has deployed Cadence high-speed PCB design solutions to help automate its layout process for high-speed boards. Details

Commerce One, Inc. announced that LG&E Energy Corp., a diversified energy services company that is a member of the Powergen plc family of companies, has selected Commerce One Auction Solution to expand its supply chain. Details

Dassault Systemes announced that The Paslin Company announced that it will use DELMIA's digital manufacturing software. Details

Documentum announced that Dow Corning has made Documentum the content management platform for their newly redesigned Web site. Details

EADS Matra Datavision announced that Open CASCADE will be responsible for creating the new version of CIGAL, an application developed in-house at Alcatel Space for visualizing the results of thermal calculations and for constructing radiative models.

EDS announced its PLM Solutions unit signed a multi-million dollar contract with Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Systems to deploy approximately 4,000 seats of EDS' TeamCenter aerospace and defense solution.

IDe (Integrated Development Enterprise, Inc.) announced that Donaldson Company, a $1.1 billion manufacturer of filtration systems and replacement parts, has selected IDweb software to integrate and streamline management of the company's product development process.

IHS Enterprise Solutions announced that it has won a $1.8 million contract addendum to Web enable shipboard asset management for the U.S. Navy. This contract award will focus on rebuilding the Configuration Management Information System (CMIS), an asset management and maintenance tracking system, from its current DOS and Windows architecture to a fully Web-based system with integrated database technology. Details

Informative Graphics Corporation announced that Alextra.com has selected Brava! WebKit to power document management, viewing, and mark-up for its clients. Details

LASCOM announced new sales of Advitium by its partners. In the UK, CadAssist signed contracts with Dickinson Legg, THORLUX and Scottish Newcastle. In Sweden, EMT signed ANEO, and in France, DataFlow installed Advitium at SBM. Details

Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. announced that Litens Auto Group, based in Woodbridge, Ontario, Canada, placed its first order for $180,000 in ADAMS software. Mechanical Dynamics also announced that Fuji Heavy Industry Co., maker of Subaru automobiles, ordered $160,000 of ADAMS software, including the newest module in the Functional Digital Car, ADAMS /Driveline. Details

PTC announced it received a $2 million follow-on order for PTC's Pro/ENGINEER software and services from Liebherr Group, one of the world's largest providers of construction and civil engineering machinery. Details

Quickturn announced the successful integration of the MercuryPlus design verification system within Siroyan's design environment, enabling Siroyan to tape out its test chip ahead of schedule. Details

QUMAS Inc. announced that Cellegy Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has selected QUMAS DocCompliance, a compliance solution designed to manage the full lifecycle of regulatory controlled documentation throughout the enterprise.

SAP AG announced that Siemens Information and Communication Mobile Phones is live with mySAP Product Lifecycle Management (mySAP PLM) to drive product innovation, engineering and design processes and bring high-quality products to market faster and more cost-efficiently. More than 600 Siemens designers work directly with the mySAP PLM solution. In addition, another 800 employees benefit from the information that is generated by mySAP PLM and distributed to various logistics systems. Details

SolidWorks Corporation announced that Dresser Inc., a global manufacturer and marketer of highly engineered equipment used primarily in the energy industry, will extend its use of SolidWorks 3D CAD software to hundreds of engineers in its equipment design groups. Details





* Developments *
ANSYS, Inc. announced the introduction of AI*Workbench, a new application development platform designed to bring customized simulation solutions and Web collaboration to the product development process. Details

ANSYS, Inc. announced the launch of ANSYS 6.0, a comprehensive software suite to address varied simulation and analysis needs. Details

ACS Software, Inc. announced that CADATA Consulting Ltd., an AutoEDMS Value Added Reseller, is developing a custom version of its dwgBase product, a dwg/dxf search engine, as an add-on module for AutoEDMS.

Actify announced the release of 3DView 4.0, a major step forward for CAD design visualization. Details

Alibre announced that Alibre Design, its online mechanical design and data-sharing application, has achieved the Designed for Windows XP logo. Details

Cimage NovaSoft released the latest version of its integrated document and workflow management system, NovaManage 7, addressing the unique needs of organizations in highly regulated industries such as pharmaceuticals and medical devices.

Digital Paper Corporation announced the immediate availability of its docQuest product, version 5.0. docQuest 5.0 allows organizations to securely exchange and collaborate on complex technical content (e.g., engineering drawings, specifications, blueprints, etc.) across the Web. Details

Documentum announced three integration points between Documentum 4i eBusiness Platform and Oracle9i Application Server in addition to the existing integration between Documentum 4i and Oracle9i Database. Details

EDS PLM Solutions announced a new software solution enabling organizations working with the Unigraphics product from the former Unigraphics Solutions or the I-DEAS product from the former SDRC to use either application to directly access and work with models from either application in an interoperable environment. Details

EPM Technology announced new features in EXPRESS Data Manager 4.5. Cascading view technology simplifies the definition of Business Objects that will be stored directly in the database.

Gibbs and Associates announced that they are now offering an add-in for SolidWorks software that facilitates push-button transfer of model files from SolidWorks to GibbsCAM. Details

Hummingbird Ltd. announced the immediate availability of PD Accord. PD Accord's document -centric collaboration environment integrates with Hummingbird's document management products including CyberDOCS, PowerDOCS and DOCS Open, and Hummingbird EIP extending the power of these solutions outside the enterprise. Details

The Process & Building Solutions division of Intergraph Corporation announced an update to its flagship Plant Design System (PDS) software, featuring expanded capabilities for design of biochemical and pharmaceutical plants.

ManufacturingQuote Inc. announced the release of its new product MfgQuote ProBuyer v.1, a hybrid private/public eSourcing solution for industrial Buyers.

Mentor Graphics Corporation announced the availability of the HDL Designer Series 2001.5 product, the latest version of the design creation and management tool suite. Details

NEC Systems Enterprise Business Solutions announced the launch of a new secure, web-based collaborative design solution targeting the semiconductor industry. The company's first project, a collaborative eBusiness application for NEC Electronics, has enabled NEC Electronics to increase the profit potential of its gate array integrated circuit business. Details

Open Text Corporation announced the availability of the Livelink Personal Knowledge Discovery package - a proactive, online search and retrieval package that reduces the amount of time required for locating key data. Details

PlanetCAD, Inc. announced PlanetCAD SCS | Envoy, the first major release by PlanetCAD of its new product line for the manufacturing supply chain. SCS | Envoy is a software program that enables product design and definition data to be integrated into the decision-making processes throughout the manufacturing supply chain. Details

SolidWorks Corporation unveiled eDrawings Professional, a new software tool that enables team members to communicate and review designs via e-mail. Details

Spatial Corp. announced the release of version 7.0 of its Standalone Deformable Modeling software.

Spicer Corporation announced the release of Imagenation 6.3. This latest release of Spicer's visualization, markup, and scanning tool enhances Imagenation with new native file format support, and a License Manager utility. Imagenation enables users to quickly and accurately display and markup over 150 file formats. New file format support in Imagenation 6.3 includes: AutoCAD 2002; Cadra 11; Gerber RS 274-D and RS 274-X; SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics); Microsoft Office 2000 and 2002 (XP) for Word, Excel, and PowerPoint; Enhancements to PDF, PS, and RTL support. A License Manager has also been added to Imagenation to simplify network administration and enable all members of an organization to access Imagenation's functions from a network. Details

Structural Research & Analysis Corp. and Blue Ridge Numerics Incorporated have announced plans to embed the next release of COSMOS/Flow into SolidWorks. Details

Sun Microsystems, Inc. announced the NT to Solaris Operating Environment (OE) Migration Program - the first in its series of operating environment migration programs. Details

Sun Microsystems, Inc. previewed a new branch of the UltraSPARC III microprocessor family tree in a technology disclosure presentation. Details

Verity, Inc. and Sybase, Inc. announced the integration of Verity's search technology into the Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) 12.5 DBMS' Enhanced Full-Text Search Option offered by Sybase. Details

Xerox Engineering Systems (XES) introduced the MAX 200 Network Printer, a stand-alone wide-format printer with highlight red printing capability.

3D Systems Corp. announced the release of a new software version 2.0 for its ThermoJet printer that includes a variety of new and enhanced features. Details



Engineering Data Management Newsletter
Download a free review copy of the June 2001 issue of the Engineering Data Management Newsletter (PDF, 339kB).



* Relationships *
AIM systems GmbH and the Italian office of Mensch und Maschine Software AG announced an agreement for the distribution of the COMPASS PDM system in Italy.

Bentley Systems Inc. announced that it is working together with ARCOM to enable straight-through processing of specification data by integrating ARCOM's SPECWARE software and the MASTERSPEC master specification system with Bentley's Architecture for MicroStation TriForma. Details

Bentley Systems announced that it has signed an agreement with Intergraph Government Solutions that will insure the continued availability of the Bentley products now listed on the Intergraph-maintained CAD-2 contract with the Federal government. Details

CoCreate Software Inc. announced that it has signed HARBEC Plastics Inc. as a new member of CoCreate's Engineering E-Services Partner (EESP) program. HARBEC will use CoCreate OneSpace to help its customers create more competitive, innovative and manufacturable plastic designs. Details

Dassault Systemes and Intelligent Manufacturing Software Inc. (IMS) announced the signing of an Original Software Development agreement. Under this agreement, the IMSpost postprocessor technology will be embedded into the open architecture of CATIA V5 and other Dassault Systemes Solutions. Details

Entrada Software, Inc. announced their partner alliance with Autodesk, and membership in the Autodesk Developer Network.

GlobalSpec, Inc. announced a partnership with MatrixOne, Inc. SpecStation, GlobalSpec's Web-based PDM application for the sourcing of mechanical, electrical and optical components, will be available for integration with MatrixOne's business collaboration platform, eMatrix and the Value Chain Portfolio of business applications.

http://www.cyco.com

Win a Handspring Visor

Modultek announced it has signed a partnership agreement with Martir & Partners Project Services (MPPS) for the Benelux countries. MPPS will begin retailing Modultek's Aton solution and providing implementation services to client firms.

PTC and Andersen announced an alliance to provide solutions that enable customers to drive new product development with web-enabled processes that result in reduced time-to-market, increased product success rates and improved product performance in terms of customer satisfaction, quality returns and defect rates. Details

RAND Worldwide and ENGINEERING.com, Inc. announced they have signed a global reseller agreement with Lumeo Software, Inc., a develop of interactive, real-time simulation software that enables engineers to digitally test and demonstrate the behavior of new design products and concepts.

SAP AG and Crystal Decisions, the makers of Crystal Reports, announced they have signed a strategic agreement to integrate Crystal Decisions' formatted reporting and Web-based information delivery technologies within the data warehouse component (SAP Business Information Warehouse) of mySAP Business Intelligence (mySAP BI) and of the mySAP.com e-business platform. Details

Speed to Market announced it is partnering with AGI to optimize Herman Miller new product development.

Sun Microsystems, Inc. announced that SAP users can now run their mission-critical mySAP.com e-Business solutions on Sun Cluster 3.0 software for increased scalability, availability and manageability. Details

Xerox Engineering Systems (XES) announced an alliance with Atlanta-based eQuorum Corporation. Under this agreement, XES is offering its customers ImageSite, a document management system.

3D Systems Corp. and racing team European Minardi F1 announced they have entered into an alliance that will see the team using 3D Systems' stereolithography and, in the future, selective laser sintering technologies to assist with wind tunnel modeling, rapid prototyping and the production of vehicle componentry. Details

* Other *
Agile Software Corporation announced that its board of directors has approved a voluntary stock option exchange program for eligible option holders. Details

IntegWare, Inc. announced it has been named to Deloitte & Touche's "Technology Fast 50 Program for Colorado", a ranking of the 50 fastest growing technology companies in the area.

MSC.Software Corp. announced that it awarded more than $6 million in CAE software to Kettering University's Mechanical Engineering department in an ongoing effort to support and foster Kettering's technical achievements in the mechanical engineering marketplace. Details

MSC.Software Corp. said it would vigorously defend itself against an administrative challenge, filed by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), to MSC.Software's acquisitions of Universal Analytics Inc. (UAI) and Computerized Structural Analysis & Research Corp. (CSAR). Details

Mentor Graphics Corporation announced new customized Web-based support services that provide customers with the information required to keep design teams on track and on time. Details

Spatial Corp. and Tech Soft America announced the OpenHSF Initiative and the first publication of the HSF Specification. Intended to provide an open visualization file format that meets the needs of the industry, the OpenHSF Initiative was designed to deliver the preferred solution to the visual interoperability problem. (http://www.openhsf.org)

Sun Microsystems announced an aggressive migration program to enable current Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS) customers to trade-up to iPlanet Web Server, Enterprise Edition 6.0. Details

Sun Microsystems and Stanford University announced their joint undertaking, the LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe) program - designed to protect the integrity of valuable electronic content, is performing well in large-scale tests at the 47 locations around the world where it has been deployed. A product of an eighteen-month collaboration between Stanford Libraries and Sun, the program has shown great potential to solve the increasingly urgent problem of maintaining permanent access to electronic data, whose sustainability would otherwise remain vulnerable to data corruption, neglect or abuse. Details

Page 4
Brief lines


Subscription information
To subscribe to 2PDM, fill in the subscription form or send an e-mail headed 'start 2PDM subscription' to pdm@2pdm.com

Subscription cost
Subscribers receive 2PDM free of charge.

Privacy policy
We understand and respect your desire for privacy. The information we ask for at subscription time is the minimum necessary to effectively fulfill your subscription and communicate with you if and when necessary. We do not release the information you provide us to third parties. In case of further questions, you can reach us at pdm@2pdm.com

Previous issues
Click here to access previous issues of 2PDM.

Limited time
We know you have a busy schedule. To reduce delivery and reading time, 2PDM has a simple format and concise content.

Termination of subscription
To terminate subscription, please send an e-mail headed 'stop 2PDM subscription' to pdm@2pdm.com

Sponsorship
2PDM is provided free of charge to its readers. Companies that share our objectives of promoting successful implementation of EDM and PDM systems and world-class product development performance may sponsor 2PDM. There is space for a maximum of one sponsor message per page, except on this 'Brief lines' page - where there is room for several short sponsor messages.

Publication frequency
2PDM is published approximately every two weeks.

Copyright
Copyright 2001 by John Stark. All rights reserved.

Permission to reproduce text or graphics
Applications for permission to reproduce part or parts of 2PDM (text or graphics) should be sent to pdm@2pdm.com

Permission to make 2PDM available within an organization
Applications for permission to make 2PDM available within a company or other organization (e.g. by internal mail, corporate Intranet, etc.) are usually accepted. Please send a request for permission to pdm@2pdm.com

Disclaimer
Information provided in 2PDM is intended solely to provide general guidance on matters of interest for the personal use of the reader, who accepts full responsibility for its use. Information is provided 'as is', with no guarantee of completeness, accuracy, or timeliness, and without warranty of any kind, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the warranties of performance, merchantability, and fitness for a particular purpose.

Nothing in 2PDM shall to any extent substitute for the independent investigations and the sound technical and business judgement of the reader. Technology, laws and regulations are continually changing, and can only be interpreted in the light of particular factual situations. The information in 2PDM does not constitute technological, business, legal, investment or consulting advice, and should only be used in conjunction with appropriate professional advice obtained by the reader from a suitably qualified professional who understands the reader's particular factual situation.